Mountain areas are disproportionately affected by poverty and food insecurity. Whilst food security has increased across the globe over the past several decades, many mountainous regions of the developing countries have experienced increased vulnerabilities and risks in food and nutrition security due to deteriorating local food systems, loss of agricultural biodiversity, degradation of mountain ecosystems, changing food habits, increased climate variability and other socio-economic and climatic factors. Mountain landscapes often form biodiversity hotspots with a high degree of endemism. This biodiversity forms the basis of many ecosystem services that humans rely upon, including the origin of many of the world’s major food crops and unique varieties that are highly adapted to their specific mountain environments. Mountain biodiversity is crucial for global food security and long-term resilience of food systems. Therefore, it is of high importance to maintain mountain agricultural biodiversity as a means to enhance the resilience of food security for local, national and global communities.